Fundamentals and Principles of Graphic Design
The science and principles of graphic design are what distinguish between the designer and the non-designer, so understanding the principles and principles of design scientifically and practically, is the right start for every beginner in the field of design, after knowing the design elements.
Many of these principles are discretionary and subject to the designer’s feeling and feeling, and this appreciation grows with continuous practice and deep contemplation of professional designs, and these foundations are the product of cumulative experiences that have developed over time.
We had discussed graphic design elements, what is the composition of the design and the functions of each element, which is an important beginning before we start dealing with the principles and principles of artistic design.
Principles and principles of graphic design
First: Unity and Proximity:
What is meant by unity is the unity of graphic design elements, that is, there is a relationship between these elements, and the relationship may be formal by unifying the pattern of drawing shapes such as the pattern of geometric shapes or the pattern of curved lines or a decorative pattern, and the relationship may be colour, by unifying the colouring system used, and it includes unity Also the unity of the idea, that is, the presentation of a single topic or idea without distraction, or the unity of the topic, as well as the unity of the style as choosing the flat design style, 2D design or 3D design.
As for the convergence, it is intended to place similar blocks under one classification or to combine them in one space convergent or contiguous, so they appear as a single block, which makes it easier for the viewer to understand the artwork as a whole with a quick glance.
Linguistically, it is equal in weight, and in graphic design it is the sense of stability and balance, meaning the equilibrium of the opposing elements in the design, and the balance of blocks generates a feeling of comfort, and balance is 3 types:
- Axial balance: that is, on both sides of a vertical fulcrum, and the balance may be symmetrical in which the shapes, blocks and lines on both sides of the painting are completely identical, and the balance may be asymmetric and in which the shapes do not coincide, they may differ in colour, shape, texture, or otherwise.
- Radial equilibrium: that is, rotation around a point or a fulcrum
- Illusory balance: it does not depend on an apparent axis or fulcrum, but rather depends on the sense of balance, and it gives more freedom to the designer, but estimating this balance is not easy, as it may depend on complex factors such as estimating the weight of colours and the proportion of space proportional around the shapes, and how close or far The masses on the pseudo-axis, and many other factors.
The designer can achieve balance by repeating shapes, changing sizes, distributing blocks closer and further from the pivot, and placement of spaces.
Criteria for calculating balance:
- Size: Large blocks have a higher visual weight than small blocks.
- Color: The higher color saturation is visually heavier than the slightly saturated color, the darker color is visually heavier than the light, and the estimate of the color weight depends on the designer’s perception.
- Position: The mass further off the pivot is optically heavier than the near mass.
- Complexity: A complex-shaped block is optically heavier than a regular block.
Third: Movement and Rhythm:
Movement is meant by the viewer’s feeling of the presence of movement within graphic design, which is a feeling resulting from the distribution of elements in a way that suggests movement, and controls the way the eye moves in sequence within the design, and the movements have directions and shapes, and they may be fast or slow, and the presence of movement in the design gives it vitality.
What is meant by contrast is the degree of contrast between converging and contiguous elements within graphic design, and the purpose of the contrast is to show and distinguish the design elements from each other, and the greater the contrast, the greater the clarity, and the contrast is made by changing the color, size, line, or spacing, and so on. The shape or text, having small sizes and large sizes illustrates the difference between the two shapes.
Fifth: Dominance or Emphasis:
Concentration or dominance is highlighting a specific part of the design, with the purpose of drawing attention and directing the eye to it, so that this part captures the viewer’s attention and directs his focus on it, and this focus can be achieved in many ways.
Sixth: Coordination and Alignment:
Coordination means distributing the elements in an orderly and not randomly within the graphic design space. The arrangement of the elements is achieved depending on the alignment, either from the edges of the shapes or from the lines in their centre, and the alignment may be straight, curved, or dependent on a chart.
A good design should take into account the correct proportion between the blocks and spaces, and the greater the size of the blocks, we need a larger space, and the proportion includes sizes, spaces, images, text and colors, for example taking into account the proportionality between the size of the title and the size of the body, and the proportion between color grades.